What is  arthrosis?

The word Arthrosis” is derived from the greek word “arthros” which means “joint”. Arthrosis is a disease of bone joint. It is a degenerative condition associated with aging, where the cartilages of the joints are affected by wear and tear. Nearly half of the population in the world is suffering from some degree of arthrosis after the age of 65 years. Arthrosis is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints like knees, hips, spine, toes and fingers manifested by pain, stiffness and swelling of the joint.

Arthrosis simply means the joint of two bones. Otherwise arthrosis refers to the junction, where the two bones meet each other for the purpose of allowing the movement of the body. Bone joint is formed of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue. Arthrosis is a chronic degenerative disease of bone joint development, due to the disparity between the production and deterioration of bone cells.

Arthrosis is not an acute condition but it is progressive in onset. Normally cartilage in the joint form protective covering at the end which allows the movement of the joint with minimum friction. Breaking down of the cartilage begins with cracks that gradually become deeper until the holes or ulcers are made at the end of the bone. As a result the client may develop severe pain, stiffness and swelling of the joint. This degenerative process on the   cartilage at the joint can result in loss of free movement in the joint.



  •  Causes of arthrosis.

  •  Common symptoms of arthrosis.

  •  Pathophsiology of arthrosis.

  •  Diagnostic measures available for arthrosis.

  •  Prevention of arthrosis.

  •  Self care method of arthrosis.

  • Dietary management of arthrosis.

  • Different types of arthrosis and its management.

  • Conclusion.


 Causes of arthrosis.

  • Increasing age: – As aging is physiological process, where there is degenerative changes occurs in the body, wear and tear can lead to arthrosis. Inspite of these even younger peoples are also developing arthrosis due to traumas or serious misalignments.
  • Heredity: - Various studies have shown that genetic predisposition in developing arthrosis.
  • Obesity: – Another cause for developing arthrosis is obesity, overweight causes more stress to the joints leading to arthrosis. Over weight is mainly causing more pressure to the lumbar spine and joints of the lower limb.
  • Hormonal imbalance:-Hormones also plays a vital role in the development of arthrosis. Many studies revealed that, in menopausal women prevalence of arthritis is more due to the lack of oestrogen.
  • Environment: - Some of the working condition can lead to the development of arthrosis. Those who are driving  lot is more prone to get cervical and lumbar arthrosis, those working with pneumatic drill are more likely to have arthrosis in hand, elbow and shoulder. The persons who use the computers for many hours are also at a risk of developing the cervical and hand arthrosis. In modern society arthrosis is considered as professional illness, when the body is kept in “fixed” or incorrect positions.

Common symptoms of arthrosis.

        Arthrosis is a common degenerative disease of the joint that begins in the cartilage and subsequently moves into the bone tissue.

  • Pain

The most common sign of arthrosis is pain that is increasing progressively. It is mainly experienced in the affected joint.

Pain increases with the activity and subsides with rest.

  • Stiffness

As the proper functioning of the joint is altered due to degenerative process, the person may experience unusual stiffness in

the joint which may go on increasing with time.

  • Swelling

Inflammation or swelling in the affected joint will be there, due to the wearing of the cartilage. This can be very painful at


  • Functional disabilities

Pain and swelling in the affected joint can lead to the functional disabilities in the client with arthrosis.

Pathophsiology of arthrosis.

      Cartilage is a protective cushion that covers the area between two bones as they move. Arthrosis is a degenerative disease of the joints. It occur when the cartilages is damaged through injury, illness or repeated stress and strain. This damage can lead to pain, stiffness and swelling of the joint.

Arthrosis occurs when there is reduction and changes in the protein components of the cartilages. Normally the body attempt to reverse these changes by producing new cartilage cells. Due to the repeated episodes of destruction and production of cartilage cell, it loses its smooth characteristics causing bone surfaces to come into direct contact.  Crack is developed in the articular surface of the cartilage as a result   local inflammatory response develops in the joint. Adjacent bones are also at a risk of developing the degenerative changes. Every component of the joint goes through hypertrophy due to local inflammatory response. As a result of this tendon, muscles and ligaments increase in sizes which give warmth, pain and swollen appearance to the joint.

Diagnostic measures available for arthrosis.

    Diagnosis is made on a

  • Detailed case history.
  • Physical examination : should evaluate the alignment and posture of the back and lower limb. Do thorough examination of painful joint for possible swelling,strength,articulation and neurological deficit.
  • Instrumental diagnosis: X-ray (it shows presence of alterations such as reduction of the joint, reabsorption areas and sclerotic areas.
  • MRI and CAT scan.


Prevention of arthrosis.

  •  Prevention is always better to limit complications .Firstly correct the axial and postural defects such as scoliosis, dysmetria, incorrect plantar support by using corrective orthosis, specific arch supports and postural exercises.
  • Always maintain correct posture and do not overload the joint with excessive pressure and working. Always maintain ideal body weight because overweight places an excess pressure on the joint of the lower limb.
  •  Regular and continous motor activity is important for preventing the complications of arthrosis.  Usually continuous Low impact sports activity is recommended. Along with the motor activity, pharmacological management is also recommended to relieve the symptoms. Medicines like anti inflammatory, decontracting and analgesics can be used to relieve symptoms like pain, swelling or muscle contraction.

Another method is  is using a substance called condroprotections, which is present more or less in the joint cartilage is also found to be effective. This can be taken as oral or infiltration directly to the affected joint.

Self care method of arthrosis

If the disturbances are slight, it may be useful to do the following:

  • Perform and continuous aerobic activity, but do not overload the joints.
  • Follow a well-balanced diet.
  • Improve the ergonomics in the work place, correcting and maintaining your posture.
  • Do not carry out dangerous movements.
  • Do not remain seated or standing for long periods in the same position.

Dietary management of arthrosis

Diet is an important factor for preventing many illnesses. Diet for arthrosis should include high fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals and essential oils,

        Foods to be avoided

  • There are certain foods to be avoided to prevent the occurance of artherosis. These are fast foods, processed food and red meat as they contain unhealthy fats. Solanine is another food that found to increases inflammation of the joint. Foods from the solanine family include potato, pepper, tomato, paprika and eggplant. When   these food are avoided in the client with arthrosis, they found to have less inflammation of joint. The condition worsens in the client who smokes as it contains solanine.

     Highly recommended foods

  • Foods that contain anti-inflammatory properties like turmeric and ginger helps to relieve inflammation. Green leafy vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts (almonds and walnuts) seeds such as flaxseed, fruit and kefir. Whole grains such as brown rice, bulgur wheat, oatmeal, fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines, is also found to be effective.


Different types of Arthrosis and its management

        Arthrosis is classified according to the site of joint. It can be cervical arthrosis, facet arthrosis , AC joint ,Lumbar arthrosis and coxarthrosis.

Cervical Arthrosis

          It is otherwise called as cervicarthrosis. Cervical arthrosis  is a chronic degeneration of the cartilage in the cervical area .it is     more common in people after the age of 4oyears. It is present in almost all individual but more common in women. It is degenerative process occur between the cervical vertebrae locally at the neck. The disease is more common in people who are working for long hour in front of the computer by bending their head.


       Cervical Arthrosis Symptoms

The most common manifestation of cervical arthrosis is  pain at the root of the neck. This pain can radiate to the arm and shoulder. Head movement becomes more and more difficult due to the stiffness of the neck

In some client, the condition can be asymptomatic. The cervical arthrosis is common in people who work for long hours with their head bent such as those involved in computer jobs.


     Treatment of Cervical Arthrosis

Treatment of Cervical Arthrosis usually depends on the severity and progress of the syndrome. Mild cases are treated with the aid of rest, drugs and regular exercises. In order to relieve the symptoms like pain and swelling, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen or Aspirin and non-narcotic analgesics are quite useful

Home remedial measures for Cervical Arthrosis include rest, hot showers and aerobic exercises. Over-the-counter drugs are also very useful in providing symptomatic relief from the syndrome.

   Facet Arthrosis

             It is also known as Facet Joint Syndrome or Facet Syndrome. The facet arthrosis is more common in elderly people. Its results    from an injury. Facet joints are bone joints with smooth cartilage surface. Facet Arthrosis is due to the degeneration of the smooth cartilage. It occurs when facet joints in the posterior part of the spine wears out

     Facet Arthrosis Symptoms

Facet arthrosis mainly affects the neck and lower back. The symptoms of Facet Arthrosis involve headache, back pain ,neck pain and reduced range of spinal movement.

    Facet Arthrosis Treatment

Facet arthrosis is treated by various ways. Medications and posture correction can be used for the treatment of Mild cases. Severe cases are treated with exercise, physical activity, and activity modification.


          Coxarthrosis is a degenerative Arthrosis disease affecting the hip joint. It is also known as Arthrosis of the hip joint.

   Coxarthrosis Causes

Coxarthrosis occurs due to increasing degeneration of the joint cartilage. The loss of cartilage in bone joint leads to the wear and tear of joint give rise to this discomforting condition.

    Coxarthrosis Symptoms

The most common manifestation is pain and increasing stiffness of the hip joint. This pain and discomforts .impairs daily activities and even mobility. So the activities like walking, prolonged sitting will be difficult.

     Coxarthrosis Treatment

Surgery is the main stream of management for Coxarthrosis. If medical management fails then, hip joint replacement is recommended.


   Lumbar Arthrosis

        Lumbar Arthrosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the spine between the lumbar vertebrae. So it is also known as “Arthrosis of the spine”or “Lumbar Spine Arthrosis .

      Lumbar Arthrosis Causes

This disease developed due to the abnormal posture or bad position during work hour or sports. As a result of this, wear occur       between the lumbar vertebrae and also in the intervertebral disk.

    Lumbar Arthrosis Symptoms

 Lumbar Arthrosis is characterized by “backache” or pain in the spinal region. This pain is mainly perceived during movement   and workouts. Rubbing of the vertebrae during the physical activity can result in temporary pain.

    Lumbar Arthrosis Treatment

 Lumbar braces are available to immobilize spinal muscle and keeps the back in a good posture. Another treatment modality is  using lumbar support belt which decreases the pressure exerted on the vertebrae.

 AC Joint Arthrosis

It is a common degenerative disease of the shoulder joint that leads to pain and discomfort during shoulder movement. The AC joint arthrosis is the leading cause of osteoarthritis in middle aged sufferers.

   AC Joint Arthrosis Causes

It can results from an injury due to a fall or activities like weight lifting may lead to hyperextension of the shoulder.

   AC Joint Arthrosis Symptoms

Tenderness and pain in shoulder joint is the early sign of AC joint Arthrosis. Pain is increased in the activities like heavy weight lifting that require arm extension. A mild pain may also be felt in other regions like the front of the chest and the neck.

    AC Joint Arthrosis Treatment

Prolotherapy is a natural medical therapy found to be effective for the treatment of AC joint arthrosis.



        Arthrosis is a common degenerative disease occurs due to aging. As a result of this cartilage which becomes irregular, rugged    and worn out. This wearing out of cartilage can lead to pain, stiffness of the joint, loss of mobility and loss of muscle strength. By doing regular exercises and staying active, you can contribute directly to the nutrition of the cartilage of your joints. The cartilage which protects the extremities of bones needs regular activity to absorb nutrients and to improve the lubrication of joints.  So always be active help to keep your joints healthy.

     We will be expanding on this important topic in future articles. While I recommend you to register to download an e-book: “Adult Prevention Guide” for better health, a FREE


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