Hematology

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

 

The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a collection of blood-related medical conditions that involve ineffective production of the myeloid class of blood cells. It was formerly known as preleukemia It leads to the development  severe anemia causing the disease worsens and the patient develops cytopenias (low blood counts) caused by progressive bone marrow failure.the clients with MDS require frequent blood transfusion. So the prognosis of Mylodyslastic syndrome is poor, and 20 to 30% of patients will progress within a few months or years to refractory acute myeloid leukemia. The myelodysplastic syndromes  includes all disorders of the stem cell in the bone marrow. In MDS, hematopoiesis (blood production) is ineffective and disorderly. In myelodysplastic syndromes there will be irreversible reduction in the number and quality of blood-forming cells, further impairing blood production.

 Myelodysplastic syndrome  

  • Definition of myelodysplastic syndromes

  • The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Main causes of myelodysplastic  syndrome

  • Classification of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Identify  differential diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Signs and symptoms of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Laboratory evaluation of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • The prognosis  of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Conclusion

 

Definition of myelodysplastic syndromes

          Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of acquired clonal disorders affecting the hematopoietic system and characterized by cytopenias with hypercellular bone marrow and various morphologic abnormalities in the hematopoietic cell lines.

The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome

              The median age at diagnosis of a Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is between 60 and 75 years; in fewer patients it is younger than 50.  In children MDS diagnoses are rare . It is slightly more common in Males than females.

Main causes of myelodysplastic  syndrome

             Myelodysplastic syndrome   occur when their is interruption the production of the blood cells.In this condition as the normal rate and controlled production of  blood cells is affected there will be a lot of immature and defective cells in the bone marrow. This cells die in the bone marrow or immediately entering in to the circulation.As it continue this immature cells will be more than the normal cells which may lead to anemia, bleeding suddenly from the injured site and increased risk of infection.On the basis of etiology it is classified in to two.

            De  novo myelodysplastic syndromes is types in which the etiology is unknown or it is a type of myelodysplastic syndrome with no known cause.So this condition is easy to treat with compared to that of  myelodysplastic syndrome with a cause.

            Certain chemicals and radiations can cause myelodysplastic syndrome.It is more common found in  the cancer clients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy.This is called as secondary myelodysplatic syndrome as it occurs due to the exposure of chemicals.

Classification of myelodysplastic syndrome

            Myelodysplasia encompasses several heterogeneous syndromes. The FAB classification of myelodysplastic syndromes is based on the proportion of immature blast cells in the blood and marrow and on the presence or absence of ringed sideroblasts or peripheral monocytosis. In 1999, the WHO modified the FAB by incorporating newer morphologic insights and cytogenetic findings. It includes the following disease subtypes: refractory anemia with or without excessive blasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts. Unclassified myelodysplastic syndrome associated with isolated del(5q).

Identify differential diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome

Cytogenetic analysis by conventional metaphase karyotyping should be performed in patients with MDS.

      Congenital Disorders.

  • Hereditary sideroblastic anemia.
  • Fanconi’s anemia.
  • Diamond-Blackfan syndrome.
  • Kostmann’s syndrome.
  • Schwachman syndrome.
  • Down syndrome.
  • Vitamin or iron deficiency.
  • B12, folate, or iron deficiency.

 

      Drug Toxicity.

  • Bone marrow suppression from oral or parenteral medications.
  • Toxins.
  • Chemotherapy therapy.
  • Radiation therapy.
  • Alcohol.

 

     Anemia of Chronic Disease.

  • Renal failure.
  • Chronic infection, including tuberculosis.
  • Rheumatologic disorders.

 

       Viral Marrow Suppression.

  • Including Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, HIV, and others.

 

       Marrow Infiltration.

  • Acute and chronic leukemias.
  • Metastatic solid tumor infiltration.

        Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.   Hypersplenism.

Signs and symptoms of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Spleenomegaly  due to myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Anemia (low RBC count or reduced hemoglobin) —chronic fatigues or tiredness, shortness of breath, chilling sensation, sometimes slight chest pain.
  • Neutropenia (low neutrophil count) —increased susceptibility to infection.
  • Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) —increased susceptibility to bleeding and ecchymosis (bruising), purpura or petechia may develop due to subcutaneous hemorrhaging.
  • Abnormal nuclear shape and size granules in cells and size.
  • Chromosomal anomalies mainly translocation and abnormal chromosome number.

 

Laboratory evaluation of myelodysplastic syndrome

  •  Anemia with variable MCV (normal or increased): At least 80% of patients with MDS are anemic at diagnosis.
  • Reduced erythrocyte count (in relation to the degree of anemia).
  • Hypogranular or agranular neutrophils; 40% of patients with MDS are neutropenic at diagnosis.
  • Normal or decreased platelet count. Thrombocytopenia complicates 30% to 45% of cases.
  • Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy with iron stain and cytogenetic studies: hypercellular bone marrow, with frequent clonal chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Additional lab studies include reticulocyte count, serum erythropoietin level (obtained before RBC transfusion), iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, TIBC), serum vitamin B12 level, RBC folate, HLA antigen typing and CMV testing (if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinopathy screening by flow cytometry and HLA DR-15 typing (in hypoplastic anemia), HIV (in patient with risk factors).

Treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Results of chemotherapy are generally disappointing. Combination chemotherapy regimens (e.g., cytarabine plus doxorubicin) generally induce a complete response in only a minority of patients, and the average duration of response is less than 1 year.
  • Azacitidine (Vidaza), a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue of cytidine, recently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for MDS, has been shown to improve the quality of life for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and probably prolongs survival.
  • The role of myeloid growth factors (GCSF, GM-CSF) and immunotherapy is undefined. In a recent trial, 34% of patients treated with antithymocyte globulin (40 mg/kg for 4 days) became transfusion independent. Response was also associated with a statistically significantly longer survival.
  • Lenalidomide (Revlimid), a novel analogue of thalidomide, has demonstrated hematologic activity in patients with low-rise myelodysplastic syndrome who have no response to erythropoietin or who are unlikely to benefit from conventional therapy.
  • Monitor for infections, bleeding, and complications of anemia. Supportive measures include blood transfusions (with leukoreduced RBCs to minimize transfusion reactions and alloimmunization) and erythropoietin for anemia, and antibiotics to treat opportunistic infections. Iron overload from frequent transfusions may require iron chelation therapy with deferasirox. The optimal time to begin iron chelation to try to prevent hemosiderosis-associated organ dysfunction is unclear. If the patient’s life expectancy is greater than 1 year, chelation may be started after 25 to 30 U of RBCs have been transfused.
  • In younger age  Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation should be considered, healthier patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) INT-2/high-risk MDS or secondary MDS who have an HLA-matched sibling donor.

The prognosis  of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Cure rates in young patients with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation approach 30% to 50%.
  • The risk for transformation to AML varies with the percentage of blasts in the bone marrow. Table 7-5 describes the IPSS for MDS.
  • Nearly 50% of deaths from MDS are due to cytopenia associated with bone marrow failure.
  • The 1997 International Prognosis Scoring System (IPSS) uses the following three elements for staging.
  1. The proportion of myeloblasts in the patient’s marrow.
  2. The number of blood cell lineage deficits.
  3. The type of chromosomal abnormality present (e.g., poor risk includes abnormalities of chromosome 7, good risk includes clonal loss of the Y chromosome). According to the International Myelodysplastic Syndrome Risk Analysis Workshop, the most important variables in disease outcome are the specific cytogenetic abnormalities, the percentage of blasts in the bone marrow, and the number of hematopoietic lineages involved in the cytopenias.

Table 7-5   – International Prognostic Scoring System for MDS

  Score Value
Prognostic Variable 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2
Bone marrow blasts (%) <5 5–10 11–21 21–30
Karyotype Good Intermediate Poor
Cytopenias 0 or 1 2 or 3

 

 

 

Conclusion

          Myelodysplastic  syndrome  is disease with low prognosis because of low blood count leads to infection as well as many complications. So it is important to treat the etiology for the good prognosis.   We will be expanding on this important topic in future articles. While I recommend you to register to download an e-book: “Adult Prevention Guide” for better health, a FREE.

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We welcome your comments at the end of the article.

The Team Manager Web Diseases

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What is Thrombocytosis?

What is it?

This disorder is caused by a substance found in the blood called platelets. Thrombocytosis is also known by the name thrombocythemia.  Platelets are made in the human body.

  • Symptoms
  • Diagnosis of Thrombocytosis
  • Causes
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion

thrombocitosis

There are two types of thrombocytosis.  These are called primary and secondary. Primary thrombocytosis causes myeloproliferative disease.  Myeloproliferative can develop and lead to two kinds of leukemia.  There are several causes to this disorder.  These include blood diseases, bone marrow disease, and include infection.   Bone marrow is the porous substance that is inside all bones.  It resembles a sponge.  Have you ever cut a chicken bone?  That is what is inside the bone.  It is not clear what makes the bone marrow make too many platelets. A person who has thrombocytosis may live a perfectly normal life.  They never show or develop any other complications.  Medications that cause thrombocytosis are epinephrine which is used in a pen to counteract severe allergy reactions like bee stings, tretinoin, and vincristine.  Tretinoin comes in a cream or gel.  It is used to treat severe acne.  Vincristine is a medicine commonly used in cancer patients.  Other causes are blood loss, acute bleeding, allergic reactions, cancer, kidney failure or disorder, exercise, heart attack, infections, anemia, removal of the spleen, hemolytic anemia, inflammations, any kind of major surgeries, pancreatitis, and the person experiencing some type of trauma.  Secondary thrombocytosis is most commonly recognized as a benign complaint.  Thrombocytosis is not specifically in just women or men.  Most women with anemia during the years that they are able to have children are more susceptible to developing this illness.  Secondary thrombocytosis is not age specific.  This can happen at any age if the factors are all aligned.  Thrombocytosis is usually an underlying cause of this particular disorder.  In fact, it is usually a common sign that the person has some form of cancer.  Most common is lung cancer, cancer of the intestinal tract, and breast cancer.

 

Symptoms

Symptoms of thrombocytosis are as follows; headache (usually shows itself as migraines), dizziness, chest pain, weakness, fainting, temporary vision changes, numbness, and tingling of the hands and feet.  Most people don’t show any signs of this disorder.  Other symptoms may include easy bruising, bleeding from the nose, mouth, gums, stomach, and intestinal tract.  Irregular blood clotting in thrombocytosis can cause bleeding in the vessels of the abdomen.  There are neuro signs that present themselves.  The signs are headaches due to a brain aneurism.  To fix this, surgery to the brain and blood vessels are re-routed to a healthy vessel.  This helps bleeding issues to stop.  The pain will change in intensity from worse when exposed to heat and lesson with exposure to cold.  It is not unusual for a person to experience low grade fevers.  Secondary Thrombocytosis can develop after partial or complete spleen elimination.  It also does not have any outward presence.  In other words, if you were walking down the street, you could not pick someone out of a crowd and be able to tell that they have secondary thrombocytosis.

Video of Thrombocytosis

 

Diagnosis of Thrombocytosis

Blood tests performed are to check blood count, check for liver abnormalities, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.  If these tests are undistinguishable then a bone marrow test is performed in order to make a definite diagnosis of primary or secondary thrombocytosis.  In the case of the bone marrow test is positive, the need for a bone marrow transplant could be necessary. The first blood test may show that there is a chance that thrombocytosis will develop.  Large platelets sometimes can be identified by a simple blood smear test. Although there are several blood tests to find thrombocytosis, doesn’t mean that the results are a sure thing.  This disorder is often misdiagnosed.  Women have had unnecessary surgeries related to bleeding problems.  The most common is an unneeded hysterectomy.   A woman, who has very heavy bleeding when menstruating, can easily be diagnosed as endometriosis when it really is caused by thrombocytosis.  There have been cases where a different blood disorder is actually the medical problem but diagnosed as thrombocytosis.  A problem with the spleen could be a factor of evolving this disease.  An ultrasound is a useful tool in this case especially if the spleen cannot be manually felt.  This is done by a doctor touching where the spleen is located.  Unless the spleen is abnormally large the doctor will not be able to feel it.  Therefore an ultrasound can be performed to make sure there is no damage to the spleen.

Causes

There are three hundred and forty seven known diseases that may lead to thrombocytosis.  Von Willebrand disease is a medical problem that causes thrombocytosis.  Here is a list of just a few of the other health issues that can change this to evolve.  Infectious diseases impact thrombocytosis.  TB (tuberculosis) can also lead to this illness.  A high count of platelets can be caused from massive blood loss, recovery from alcohol abuse, and your body not storing enough B12.  Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia Medications that cause thrombocytosis is epinephrine which is used in a pen to counteract severe allergy reactions like bee stings, tretinoin, and vincristine.  Tretinoin comes in a cream or gel.  It is used to treat severe acne.  Vincristine is a medicine commonly used in cancer patients.  Other causes are blood loss, acute bleeding, allergic reactions, cancer, kidney failure or disorder, exercise, heart attack, infections, anemia, removal of the spleen, hemolytic anemia, inflammations, any kind of major surgeries, pancreatitis, and the person experiencing some type of trauma.  Taking out the spleen has the possibility of causing thrombocytosis.  This will last for life. Primary thrombocytosis is caused by myeloproliferative disease.  Secondary thrombocytosis is triggered by hemorrhage, inflammation, removal of the spleen, absence of normal spleen function, and iron deficiency.    Gangrene is also known to be a sign of thrombocytosis. Gangrene is primarily a concern with patients that are diabetic.  This happens either from lack of circulation or an untreated sore that gets infected.  Diabetics develop neuropathy.  This is when a lack of feeling occurs in feet and hands.  A diabetic experiences pain and numbness in these body areas, but is unable to feel a sore or cut on their body area.  Sometimes there appears to be no known reason for thrombocytosis to have established. Taking too much medication can be the source of developing thrombocytopenia.  Other causes of thrombocytosis are Kawasaki disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatitis, nephrotic syndrome, nephritis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, sarcomas, osteosarcoma, sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, urinary infection, and septic arthritis.  It has been noted that cases of high potassium levels have been found in people who have thrombocytosis.  There is a disease called Antiphospholipid that has been linked to thrombocytosis. Antiphospholipid Syndrome is an auto-immune disease.  The largest cause of thrombocytosis is from acquired disorders.  There are a few cases that are hereditary.   An example of this is congenital asplenea.  Age can also be a factor.  People age sixty and older are at a high risk of increasing their chance of getting thrombocytosis.  One of the factors is hereditary.  If anyone in the family has had this disorder then they are at risk.  There are other medical problems that will cause complications of thrombocytosis.  One of these is named Blackfan Diamond Anemia.  This happens when the bone marrow is unable to make the right amount of red blood cells.  Symptoms of Blackfan Diamond Anemia include a low birth weight in a baby, retardation, slow or no growth of sexual maturity, and too fail a complexion in a newborn.  Poisoning by chemical bug killers can show up as a symptom of thrombocytosis.  Other conditions that show signs of being a symptom are inflammation of a tumor in the intestines and other body organs.

 

Treatment

A patient that does not have any signs or health issues of thrombocytosis does not need any kind of treatment.  There are home tests that can be done.  One of these is an iron deficiency test.  This is performed by using special strips that measure iron deficiency in urine.  An aspirin regiment is sometimes prescribed to prevent blood clotting incidents or excessive bleeding.  In some instances the administration of aspirin in secondary thrombocytosis is all that is necessary.  Nevertheless in primary thrombocytosis if the platelet count is over one million, the doctor may prescribe a medication called hydroxyurea.  Lifestyle changes are recommended.  The changes include stop smoking, lose weight, maintain blood pressure, and keep diabetes under control.  Another item to consider is staying away from smokers so you are not exposed to second hand smoke.  Be careful buying over the counter medicines.  The only safe over the counter medicine is acetaminophen.  Acetaminophen is generally the safest pain reliever when taking prescription medication.  The other kinds of medicine contain other products that will be detrimental to someone who has thrombocytosis.  Check with your doctor to make sure it is safe to consume.   If you are consuming any kind of blood thinner, consult with a dentist before having any work performed.  These types of medications could cause excessive bleeding during the time that the work on your teeth is done.   There is a product that is available to use for treatment called compression stockings.  Compression stockings help to keep circulation in a person’s legs.  This also reduces swelling.  If there is a certain vitamin deficiency, your doctor may discuss taking certain vitamins to see if this is an adequate treatment.  There are several different types of doctors that specialize in blood diseases and disorders.  Here is a few suggestions; Hematologist, Hematophathologist, Pediatric Hematologist.  Misdiagnosis is always a possibility with any disease or disorder of this kind.  It would be beneficial to find another physician to get another opinion.  This is where specialists are the best to talk to if it is suspected you have thrombocytosis.  The most common place for misdiagnosis is an emergency situation.  Thrombocytosis can easily be overlooked when physicians and nurses are trying to treat the primary problem that lead to a visit to the emergency room in the first place.  One specific case of misdiagnosis would be if the person had a heart attack and he/she is taken to the emergency room.  The last thing they are going to look for is a bleeding disease or disorder.

 

Conclusion

Since there are a lot of circumstances that can lead to thrombocytosis, it is best to keep your doctor up to date on your medical conditions.  This includes any diseases or bleeding problems.  There are a few things that can better prepare you for your appointments with your doctor and/or specialist.  Here are some tips for being prepared.  Make sure you ask your physician about any diet changes that need to be made before the appointment.  Some tests require that you fast before the blood tests can be done.  Write down all your concerns that need to be addressed by the physician.  Compose a list of any family health events that happened that could have an impact on your own state of wellbeing.   It may be helpful if you take a friend or a member of your family along to your appointment.  Discussions with your doctor can be overwhelming.  Having another set of ears will help you understand everything the doctor discusses with you.  Doctors don’t have very much time these days with their patients.  Use your time wisely by using these simple ideas in order to make the most of your time with him/her.   It is important to remember the time factor.  Make your list of questions from most important to least significant.  This is in case you don’t have enough time to discuss all your concerns.  Once again, health insurance policies don’t always cover the cost of necessary testing.  Either ask the physician about the cost related to these tests, or call your health insurance company.  In some cases you may need pre-approval to have the tests performed.  Then you need to decide of the cost of the tests will be cost efficient for your situation.  If you think of new questions during your discussion with the physician, do not be shy about asking them if time permits.  If there is not enough time, then make a new list of questions for the next visit.

 

We will be expanding on this important topic in future articles. While I recommend you to register to download an e-book: “Adult Prevention Guide” for better health, a FREE

Click here for PDF

We welcome your comments at the end of the article.
The Team Manager Web Diseases

 

 

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What is Thrombophilia?

What is Thrombophilia?

 

Thrombophilia is not a new disease. This happens when a person develops a form of this unusual blood clotting disease.  It has become more acknowledged in recent years. This is an immune disorder is caused by inheritances. The clots can cause the woman to lose a fetus or cause the baby to be born dead. This scenario happens when the clot or clots interfere with the placenta or the umbilical cord.

 This ailment is very dangerous.  The blood clots can break off and lodge in arteries.  This could cause heart failure, stroke, and in pregnancy, death of the unborn child.  Women who are at risk for thrombophilia are more likely to have complications during pregnancy.  These women have a high occurrence of failures of being able to carry the child to full term.  In most cases this happens in the 2nd and 3rd trimester.  This facilitates the happenings of death of the baby.  Blood clotting is the ability to stop and start clotting as necessary.  When you get cut, it is the blood’s ability to clot that keeps the patient from bleeding to death.  Our bodies must produce the right amount of proteins to avoid complications associated with thrombophilia.   Discoloration and painfulness are signs the patient can look for themselves.  Thrombophilia can be found by special x-ray such as CT scan.  It can also be located by a test called Homan’s sign.  This is done by the doctor.  A DNA test has also been performed to detect the presence of any inherited factor that causes clotting issues.  Any concerns about this disorder should be discussed with your physician.

Thrombophilia

Are there Risks and Signs of Thrombophilia?

Thrombophilia has an effect on pregnancy in more than one way as well.  Pregnancy causes certain blood vessels to dilate.  One of these is high blood pressure.  Also, slow development of the baby, also premature parting of the placenta.  Some women actually complete their pregnancy without development of thrombophilia.  The most common factor of V Leiden is that it is inherited.  Most women who develop thrombophilia are of European background.  These women are approximately one out of eight.  Usually these women carry at least one characteristic of V Leiden.  There are some women that carry two characteristics of this disease.  Women of other races have least chances of development of V Leiden.  When a genetic material called F5, provides instructions to the genetic makeup this is to enable the blood to clot.  A protein that is called APC, allows Factor V to be sedentary.  This stops the clots from getting too large.  But in patients who have Factor V, there body is unable to stop this event from happening.  In this case the clot remains growing.  This is what causes strange clotting habits.  For women who carry the V factor, there are medicines that affect it gene makeup.  Birth control pills, hormone therapy replacement, are just a couple items that inhibit the V Leiden issue.  There has been a significant increase in this disorder.

One side effect is this disorder can cause early labor and preeclampsia.  Preeclampsia is virtually undetectable.  Some indications may be misunderstood as normal effects of pregnancy.  Thrombophilia can occur as far out as six weeks after childbirth.  Something as simple as blood pressure rising can make doctors look for preeclampsia causing thrombophilia to go unnoticed. Other problems that can develop are swelling in the face, hands, and legs.  This happens because the body is unable to get rid of extra water which in turn causes swelling in different parts of the body.  Weight gain is normal during pregnancy.  But if weight gain is more than just a few pounds, this could be an indicator of preeclampsia.  Vomiting can occur after the first trimester is also a possible sign of preeclampsia. Vision changes are important signs to watch out for. It could be a signal of the brain swelling. Migraine is a sign to look for in this ailment.  Pay attention lower back discomfort and stomach pain.  If any of these indicators are present you need to talk to your doctor as soon as possible.  Pulmonary embolism is another side effect of thrombophilia.  This happens when a blood clot gets into the lungs.  This effect can happen after a cesarean section in women who are overweight.

There are two types of Thrombophilia.  There is inherited and acquired.  Inherited thrombophilia is also known by the name V Leiden factor.  The V Leiden factor is known as deep venous thrombosis.  This is also known as varicose veins. Deep venous thrombosis happens primarily in the legs.  This can also take place in different locations in the flow.  If a clot gets stuck in the lungs, it is called Pulmonary Emboli. This occurs when abnormal levels of certain proteins are present.  An uncharacteristic level of these proteins is that they are too low.  These proteins are called protein S, protein C, and antithrombin III.  A mutation in the genes that occurs is called the V. Leiden gene.  This type of gene is very rare in certain ethnic groups.  These are Spanish, Mexican, and African Americans.   .  This disorder only appears in ten percent of white women.

Acquired Thrombophilia is usually caused when blood clotting agents are over stimulated.  If a piece of the clot dislodges, the outcome can be disastrous.  The clot could enter the circulation system and block an artery.  If this goes to the brain it will cause a stroke, heart attack, and even block proper lung function.

Inherited Thrombophilia is when a family member has had blood clotting problems.  This defect in proteins is handed down from generation to generation.  Although it is inherited some people never have a clotting issue.  Just because it is in a person’s genes, does not mean the person will suffer from the effects of thrombophilia.

Common Causes and signs of Thrombophilia

There are a few medical conditions that will put you at risk for developing thrombophilia.  If you or someone in your family has any one or more, of these health issues, your doctor needs to be aware of it.  Cancer, Lupus, sickle cell anemia, and congenital heart disease increase a person’s risk of developing thrombophilia.  Other things that impact a persons’ risk factor is being confined to a wheelchair or bed ridden, age, overweight, healing from surgery, being a smoker, and birth control.  Even cancer has an effect on blood clotting.  For many people the signs for this disorder are varicose veins.  These are those e pretty purple squiggles appear on the legs.  It has been said that people who have immobility issues could develop this disorder.  Sitting for prolonged amounts of time are common reason to develop thrombophilia.  Another possible sign of having this ailment is when there is loss of feeling in the upper part of the body.  This could be a sign of thoracic outlet syndrome.  This happens when the blood flow is reduced or restricted from the veins in the arms.  Thrombophilia can possibly cause heart palpitations, long term swelling, breathing difficulty, complications of collapse, and heaviness in limbs.

Video of Thrombophilia

Treatment

In several cases of Thrombophilia, are found in blood tests.  In the cases of Thrombophilia that are not passed down, this can be found by blood tests.  If it is thought to be present, there are blood tests to determine if there are any clotting problems present.  Your doctor will help decide which form of Thrombophilia the patient has.  One treatment for thrombophilia is anti- blood clotting medicine.  This is a blood thinner.  It allows he blood to run easier. Another form of treatment is a regular routine of taking aspirin.  The injection if heparin sodium into muscle s another form of treatment.  There are serious side effects if heparin is an option.  Since this therapy is used to prevent blood clotting, it may cause bleeding problems.  One of the signs is blood in the urine.  Just because the gene is there to cause this disorder does not mean the patient will have clotting issue.  It is important to find out exactly what tests results mean with your doctor.  Your doctor can keep an eye out for any apparent signs that you may develop.  Prevention is a good way to handle the possibility of developing thrombophilia.  Blood tests on the children whose parents have this problem can lead to early detection and treatment. Children with cystic fibrosis are known to have this illness occur. Cystic fibrosis is when inflammation is present in the lungs. The down sides of testing children for thrombophilia is it can be very expensive, there is no immediate benefit from these tests, general doctors may not read the test results properly, and the testing may not be complete or not accurate.  This type of testing should only be performed on those that are at a high risk of having or developing thrombophilia.  Irregularities in genes can be tested.  This type of testing is usually only done in those children who are suspected to have this blood disorder or there is family history of it.  This test also helps design a treatment plan that best suits the patient.  It is best to find a physician who specializes in gene abnormalities.  Treatment can take as long as six months.  There are certain medications that may help those people that suffer from thrombophilia.   Women, who have had prior thrombophilia, are usually treated with blood thinners during and after pregnancy. A high dose of a blood thinner needs to be monitored in order to keep from having other complications.

These particular changes in the way we live should also be considered when dealing with children who are prone to this illness.  Children with other medical condition, such as a malignancy, hemophilia, immune-deficiency, and kidney failure run a higher risk of developing thrombophilia those children who do not of an illness or have a family history of thrombophilia.  Young adolescents who are considering some type of oral pregnancy prevention medicines, and have a family history of thrombophilia, need to consult their doctor before starting this type of medication.  It is known by doctors that the testing for this ailment also experience high levels of stress and anxiety.  These patients also have shown confusion regarding these specialized tests.  There may also be health insurance problems.  There currently is no guarantee that health insurance will cover someone that has been diagnosed with this illness. The insurance companies do not take into account the health benefits of blood testing.  Some people are afraid of the stigmatism that could follow after confirmation of this blood illness.  There is a generalized fear that employers will treat the employee differently or even cause the loss of employment.  Genetic counselors are great resource tool.  They specialize in all types of blood disorders including thrombophilia.  In most cases they are better equipped to answer all concerns related to this illness.  In some cases the counselor may suggest holding off telling the child the results of the blood tests until the child reaches an age where he/she is able to make an informed decision whether the tests should be done or not.  The genetic counselors will discuss each scenario so that the patient will completely understand the results of the tests that were done.  There are a number of guidelines that the counselors have received education on.

Conclusion

The patients’ abnormal gene generation and lifestyle have an influence on the blood clotting process.  If you need help changing your lifestyle to minimize this risk, your doctor is the best resource.  Some options for lifestyle changes are lose weight, stop smoking, and regular discussions with the doctor.  There is a rapid decrease of doctors that specialize in bleeding disorders.  The Center for Disease Control, along with other corporations, is trying to attract physicians to this field of medicine.  There are studies that continue to been done to reduce the risk of this disease.  In the case of being sent to a genetic counselor, the patient, or the parent of a child, diagnosed with thrombophilia needs to use the counselor to their full capacity.

We will be expanding on this important topic in future articles. While I recommend you to register to download an e-book: “Adult Prevention Guide” for better health, a FREE

Click here for PDF

We welcome your comments at the end of the article.
The Team Manager Web Diseases

 

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What is Cholesterol?

What is Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a form of fat that your body uses for different things.  A few of these things are hormones, vitamin D, as well as other materials.  These are used to help digest food.

Here are 2 different types of cholesterol.  One is a form of beneficial cholesterol and the other is damaging cholesterol. The beneficial cholesterol is called HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) and the damaging cholesterol is named LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein).

Our bodies use cholesterol to maintain living cells.  These cells produce Estrogen in addition to Testosterone.  Cholesterol is carried through the blood by proteins. These proteins allow the cholesterol to piggy back in order to get it to the organs to be used or discarded.  Once it reaches the liver, it becomes lipids.  This is where it becomes HDL/LDL.  Most of our cholesterol is produced from the liver.  Cholesterol that comes from what we eat is absorbed by the liver.  The liver then releases it as our body needs it. The liver also helps to get rid of unwanted or needed cholesterol. The rest is from what we eat.  Some examples of dietary cholesterol are from foods like fish, poultry, calf liver, etc.  Foods that don’t have cholesterol are broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, plus any plant that can be consumed.

cholesterol

Not all cholesterol is harmful.  In fact, the benefits of cholesterol are that it makes a waxy coating that covers the outside of nerves.  Since our bodies make all the cholesterol it needs, there is really no reason to add foods into our diets that include cholesterol.  As a guideline, no more than 200 milligrams of cholesterol needs to be eaten a day.  The types of cholesterol that is beneficial to us are monounsaturated polyunsaturated food.  Intake of polyunsaturated food needs to be only 20% of our total intake per day at the most.  An excellent source of polyunsaturated food is sunflower oil, corn oil, and safflower oil.  Canola oil and olive oil are sources of Monounsaturated fat.

Not all foods that help cholesterol levels have to be bland with no seasoning or lack of flavor which produces food that is not appetizing.  There are several internet sites that have fantastic recipes for anyone’s taste.  This includes those people that are particularly picky about food. The best part is the recipes are not time consuming. There are great crock pot recipes for those who are always on the run.

The risks of high/low HDL /LDL:

Believe it or not, whether you are male or female has an influence on how Believe it or not, whether you are male or female has an influence on how our body deals with Cholesterol.  Women actually run a higher risk than men to have an issue with destructive cholesterol.  When males and females are young, there HDL /LDL are very similar.  As boys mature they start producing more testosterone.  This causes their HDL to drop.  Women on the other hand produce estrogen.  This causes the HDL to rise.  On average women HDL is a little higher than men.  This changes when the woman reaches the age when they no longer menstruate.  At this point the HDL levels are similar to men.  The LDL levels in women are made up of larger fragments after they stop menstruating.  Before this event happens, the fragments are smaller.  Smaller fragments bind together more easily than large ones.  Women who take medicine to prevent pregnancy cause HDL to rise, which subsequently the LDL is lower. On the other hand there is a medicine that makes the HDL to go down as well as LDL to rise.  Talking to a doctor will help decide what method is best.  Each case is different.  This also depends on any other medicines the woman is taking.

If a person has high levels of LDL, that person is at risk of serious health problems.  This can result in heart disease, stroke, and the breakdown of the arteries. This happens because of a substance called plaque that builds up inside the arteries which chokes the blood flow.  This can also cause blood clots.  When these blood clots get big enough, it blows out the artery. Low levels of LDL are desired in order to reduce these health deficits.  The only way to know if your cholesterol needs to be controlled is by blood test.  Here are cases of what are advantageous, unhealthy, as well as optimal levels of cholesterol; 

High cholesterol is 240 or higher.

Borderline-high is 200 – 239.

Best are less than 200.

 

There are three blood tests that are used to watch Cholesterol numbers.  These are a Fasting cholesterol test, a direct cholesterol test, including simple cholesterol test.  Here is a breakdown of how each of these tests is accomplished in addition to how they are done.  The fasting test is done nine to twelve hours since the last meal has been eaten.  This is the most complete test.  It looks for HDL, LDL, as well as triglycerides.  Triglycerides are fats in the blood that provide the body with energy.  The direct cholesterol test measures only the LDL level.  This test can be done anytime.  There is no need to go without eating.  A simple cholesterol test processes HDL/LDL levels.  This test can also be performed anytime. This may be done even if the person has just eaten.

Video of Cholesterol

What are the symptoms of High Cholesterol?

High cholesterol is a silent killer.  Unless the person has regular blood drawings to monitor HDL/LDL levels, there is no way to know if the ratio is out of whack.  More than likely the person will have a heart attack first.  Strokes are caused by the plaque building up in the arteries that supply the limbs along with the brain of oxygen.  The best way to avoid health issues concerning cholesterol is to have regular checkups in addition to a healthy diet.

Treatment Possibilities

A change in diet is a respectable start to helping reduce your cholesterol.  Here are some great ideas to start with.  Seafood at a minimum of twice a week is preferred.  Any dark green leaf vegetable helps reduce the cholesterol in the blood.  Evaporated or condensed milk with no fat or low fat, is an option for cooking.  Meat that is not red also helps cut down the cholesterol points.  Just because you need to change your diet because of cholesterol, doesn’t mean you have to give up desserts.  Fresh fruit, fat free microwave popcorn, sherbet, plus sorbets are all worthy choices.  Surprisingly, strawberries do a great job in lowering destructive cholesterol.  Strawberries are great by themselves, but have you ever thought of adding them to a salad?  Be creative; see what ideas you can come up with for this amazing fruit. You can purchase strawberries fresh from the grocer, or even dehydrated.  Dehydrated strawberries are great as a topping in smoothies.  They also make a great snack.  A great idea is to purchase a dehydrator which allows you to dry them out yourself.  This is the least expensive way in the long run then purchasing strawberries already dried.  Strawberries also have other great health advantages.  They are low in calories which is an excellent source of fiber.  Changing habits in the way you live, also help correct cholesterol problems.  An example of changing life habits are increasing exercise, stop smoking, in combination with of course meal planning.  There are a number of sites to help get started with these changes.  Every little bit will help in other health problems.

There are a few misunderstandings about cholesterol.  Just because your beneficial cholesterol is in the best range, doesn’t mean you shouldn’t be careful.  There are a lot of factors to keep in mind.  If you have other health problems, this will increase your chances of having heart issues.  Some of these medical problems include family history, diabetes, high blood pressure, as well as any previous heart problems.  There is also a misconception that only our elders have a problem controlling cholesterol levels.  As a matter of fact, testing should actually begin by age twenty.  Where there is family history of this problem is a clue to start monitoring it as early as early teenagers.  Your ethnic background may also put you at risk.  A persons’ ethnic makeup can affect how the body processes cholesterol.  It has not been specifically identified why this happens.

If a person cannot control the cholesterol levels by diet, there is another option.  There are several medications on the market to help regulate the cholesterol levels.  The prescription medicines are preferably the last choice if cholesterol numbers are still too high.  These medicines are used to grab the cholesterol your body cannot use.  These drugs are called Statins.  This type of medication has other benefits too.  One of which is to take away inflammation from your body.  This is helpful news for people that suffer from asthma plus C.O.P.D (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder). Another benefit of taking this type of medicine is that readings show they could possibly help the immune system.  Also it may help slow down the progress of Alzheimer’s.   It has also been discovered that Statins help reduce the risk of Cataracts.  This is when a cloudy substance covers the eye which can affect vision.  Another advantage is it reduces blood pressure.

There is one medication that helps stop the cholesterol from being consumed by the body.  It’s called an absorption inhibitor.  This medicine actually keeps the cholesterol from getting into the circulation.  Not much is really known about this drug.

Some choices to consider are over the counter remedies.  For example, Omega-3, fiber enhancements, garlic, also products made with soy, whole grains, including fish oil in order to help bring down cholesterol.  This is an indication to do a combination of medication and a change of diet if cholesterol levels are out of control.  Also making changes to physical well-being with exercise is beneficial. Not everyone is able to do extensive exercises.  A short walk, bicycle riding, and swimming are worthy places to start with an exercise program.  Swimming is the best choice for no impact and great heart exercise. People that smoke, are diabetic, and have had prior heart attacks, all increase the risk of having a heart attack, another heart attack, or even a stroke.

There are differences between medicine that is prescribed and those bought of grocery store shelves.  The main difference is that the supplements are approved by the Food, Drug Administration.  If there are several complaints about a product, it will be pulled off the shelf.  It is the company that makes these products, responsibility to make sure the labels contain the correct information, have not been exposed to contaminants, which are made in a sanitary facility.  Prescription medicines have to meet higher standards.  It is the company’s responsibly to prove that it is safe, what it accomplishes, plus any side effects that are related to the pill.  The other major difference between over the counter remedies as well as prescription expense.  In most scenarios the over the counter supplement is greatly cheaper.  This is a factor for most people.  The drawback is that the supplement may not be a high enough dose to achieve the desired levels of HDL/LDL.

Conclusion

It is very important that a person with a family history of heart disease, stroke maintain healthy diets, exercise, are necessary way of life changes.  The changes to your life include weight loss including quitting smoking.  Cholesterol problems can also be hereditary.  Your inherited characteristics may keep cells from eliminating LDL cholesterol from your blood capably or cause your liver to create too much cholesterol.  In some cases it is necessary to add a medication to help control levels of HDL/LDL.  Everyone should keep their physician informed of any family history of heart disease.  Before changing your diet, taking over the counter remedies, including starting an exercise routine, it is best to talk to your doctor to make sure you are not physically causing harm to yourself.  Some products may have negative effects with other medicines.  This would be completely counterproductive. Trust in your doctors’ advice.  He or she is there to help you not hurt you.

We will be expanding on this important topic in future articles. While I recommend you to register to download an e-book: “Adult Prevention Guide” for better health, a FREE

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We welcome your comments at the end of the article.
The Team Manager Web Diseases

 

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